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LTE and HSPA Vulnerability to Interference. The threat of spectral pollution and interference in modern cellular communication such as LTE is growing.

Mobile operators are going through a significant upgrade phase of their radio access network (RAN) in order to boost their network capacity by upgrading legacy 2G networks to 3G/HSPA and 4G/LTE.

This process involves deployments in new spectrum such as the digital dividend 800MHz and 2600MHz band as well as re farming existing spectrum such as the 900MHz and 1800MHz GSM bands.

The advanced air interface protocols introduce continuously increasing bandwidthand spectral efficiency in order to meet increasing demand for high throughput and capacity mobile broadband.

As a result the cellular sites vulnerability to interference is increasing.

The wider channel bandwidth (5-20MHz) makes it difficult to avoid interference and the improved spectral efficiency results in higher sensitivity to degradation in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and therefore to interference. Innovative solutions for protection of the expensive spectrum assets against interference are therefore required

GSM Interference Resulting from Reframing The 900MHz (Band 8) and 1800MHz (Band 3) spectrum are going under re-farming process enabling significant improvement of spectrum exploitation

GSM networks which have been occupying this spectrum in the past two decades are replaced by 3G/WCDMA and recently 4G/ LTE allowing dramatic increase in spectrum efficiency and available throughput and capacity to mobile data users.

While this process represents significant improvement in the cellular service it also contains an increased threat for interference from legacy GSM networks operating in neighboring spectrum and neighboring geographical area.

The impact of the nearby GSM signals occupying same spectrum as the re-farmed WCDMA or LTE network creates significant interference which results in drop of cellular sites performance, increase in calls and data session drops and significant reduction of cell’s capacity.

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